Summary of Canadian economic sanctions
June 1, 2010
The Canadian government is empowered to implement economic sanctions under three statutes:
- The United Nations Act enables the Canadian government to give effect to decisions passed by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. The Act allows the government to impose penalties of up to $100,000 and up to one year of imprisonment, or up to 10 years of imprisonment, for breaching a sanction, and allows it to seize property.
- The Special Economic Measures Act (SEMA) gives the government authority to impose sanctions in the absence of a UNSC resolution. Breaches of sanctions issued under the SEMA can lead to a $25,000 fine and up to one year of imprisonment, or up to 5 years of imprisonment.
- The Export and Import Permits Act (EIPA) allows the government to require permits for the export of all goods to countries on the Area Control List.
As of April 30, 2010, Canada has issued economic sanctions against 14 countries and 2 groups (Al-Qaida and the Taliban). They are as follows:
- Côte d’Ivoire: Pursuant to a resolution of the UNSC, Canada has prohibited the export of arms and related material to any person in Côte d’Ivoire. The exceptions to the ban are for exports to United Nations officials or for purposes approved by the UNSC.
- Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: In line with a UNSC resolution, Canada has prohibited the export to or import from North Korea of any arms or resources contributing to North Korea’s weapons program. The regulation also prohibits the export of various luxury goods to North Korea.
- Democratic Republic of the Congo: These regulations prohibit the export of arms and related material to the DR Congo, except for use by the UN Mission or for approved humanitarian or protective purposes.
- Iran: Following three UNSC resolutions, it is prohibited to export materials or technology related to uranium enrichment, processing of heavy water or development of nuclear weapon delivery systems. The regulations also prohibit Canadians from procuring certain designated arms and related material from any person acting on behalf of Iran. A new UN Security Council resolution of May 18, 2010 has expanded the scope of prohibitions on investment, financial services and banking that could relate to proliferation activities.
- Iraq: The regulations prohibit the export of arms and related material to Iraq, unless authorized by a UNSC resolution and required by the government of Iraq or the multinational force.
- Lebanon: It is prohibited to export arms and related material to Lebanon, except where authorized by the government of Lebanon or the UN Interim Force in Lebanon.
- Liberia: The prohibition on exporting arms and related material to Liberia has several exceptions for humanitarian and protective use, for the UN Mission, and for protective clothing for UN personnel, media, and humanitarian and development personnel.
- Pakistan: Because of nuclear weapons tests conducted by Pakistan in 1998, permits for exports of military goods or technology to Pakistan will not be granted.
- Sierra Leone: The regulations entirely prohibit the export of arms and related material to Sierra Leone.
- Sudan: The prohibition on the export of arms and related material to Sudan is subject to exceptions for humanitarian, human rights monitoring or protective use, for peace support operations, or for the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. There is also an exception for the export of protective clothing for use by UN personnel, media, human rights monitors, and humanitarian and development personnel.
- Somalia: The regulations prohibit the export of arms and related material, with exceptions for humanitarian and protective use, or for use by the African Union mission. There is also an exception for the export of protective clothing for use by UN personnel, media, and humanitarian and development personnel.
- Eritrea: There is a prohibition against the export or import of arms and related material to and from Eritrea and against the provision of training or financial assistance related to military activities or arms. The Minister may issue a certificate exempting a person’s property from the prohibition.
- Al-Qaida and the Taliban: It is prohibited to provide arms or related material to individuals or entities designated by the UNSC as belonging or related to the Taliban, Osama bin Laden or Al-Qaida.
- Burma (Myanmar): These regulations, under the SEMA, impose a prohibition against the import or export of any goods to or from Burma. There are exceptions for international organizations, for the removal of personal effects from Burma, and for personal correspondence. Exports to Burma are also permitted where the Minister grants a permit pursuant to the SEMA and the EIPA.15.Zimbabwe: There is a prohibition under the SEMA against the export of arms and related material, except where they are for humanitarian, protective or development use, or where a permit is granted.16.Belarus: As Belarus has been placed on the Area Control List under the EIPA, permits are required for the export of any goods to this destination.
- Zimbabwe: There is a prohibition under the SEMA against the export of arms and related material, except where they are for humanitarian, protective or development use, or where a permit is granted.
- Belarus: As Belarus has been placed on the Area Control List under the EIPA, permits are required for the export of any goods to this destination.
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