Employment and labour - March 2012

Publication | March 2012

A practical guide to the CCMA guidelines on misconduct arbitrations

On 1 January 2012, the CCMA implemented Guidelines on Misconduct Arbitrations which seek to promote consistent decision making in arbitrations dealing with dismissals for misconduct.  

How to conduct arbitration proceedings

Whilst arbitrators may determine the form of the arbitration, the parties must always be entitled to give evidence, call witnesses, question witnesses and address concluding arguments.  

Even though an arbitration is a fresh hearing, an arbitrator may rely on the record of the internal disciplinary hearing insofar as it is admitted as evidence during the arbitration.  An arbitrator may draw a positive inference if a witness’ evidence is consistent with the record of the internal disciplinary hearing or an adverse inference should the witness’ version be different.

The arbitration proceedings may be formally divided into six stages:

  1. preparation and introduction;
  2. the preliminary issues;
  3. narrowing the issues;
  4. the hearing of evidence;
  5. the concluding arguments; and
  6. the award. 

Introduction stage

During the preparation and introduction stage, the arbitrator welcomes the parties and advises them of a number of issues including the fact that the proceedings will be recorded, any interest that the arbitrator may have in the outcome of the matter, the language in which the proceedings will be conducted, if there is a need for interpretation, the rules of the proceedings, how to address the arbitrator, the powers of the arbitrator, the procedure to introduce documents into the proceedings and the requirement that if the evidence of a witness is disputed by a party, such party should put questions to the witness and put its version to the witness so that the witness has an opportunity to respond. 

The arbitrator is also required to intervene in circumstances where it is evident that a party or its representative does not understand the nature of the proceedings and it is prejudicing the presentation of its case.  The circumstances that would give rise to this intervention include when a party fails to lead evidence of their version under oath or affirmation, when a party fails to cross-examine the witness of the other party, or fails to put their version to those witnesses during cross-examination, or when a party changes its version of events or puts a new version during proceedings.

Preliminary issues stage

After the preparation and introduction stage, any preliminary issues may be canvassed.  These include applications for condonation and objections to jurisdiction as well as applications dealing with legal representation, disclosure of documents or the recusal of the arbitrator.  It is noteworthy that the arbitrator has a duty to confirm that the CCMA has jurisdiction to hear the dispute irrespective of whether the jurisdictional point is raised by either of the parties.  The arbitrator is required to check that the parties to the dispute have been properly identified and if necessary correct the description of any party.  

The arbitrator is required to decide any preliminary point before proceeding with the arbitration unless evidence is required to deal with a preliminary point and it is practicable to hear evidence on the merits at the same time.  An application for legal representation is also to be considered at this stage of the proceedings.  However, a party who does not apply for legal representation at the outset is not prevented from making such an application subsequently during the arbitration proceedings.  

Narrowing issues stage

Thereafter, the parties are required to narrow the issues in dispute by reaching an agreement on the legal and factual issues involved in the case so as to expedite the hearing.  Brief opening statements may be addressed at this point so that the parties are able to set out their approaches to the issues in dispute.

The arbitrator must ensure that the employee states whether or not procedural or substantive fairness, or both, are being challenged and what relief is being claimed.  At this stage, the parties should indicate what documents they will be relying upon during the arbitration proceedings and the extent to which they will admit the documents of the other party as evidence.  

The arbitrator should then secure and record an agreement from the parties which identifies the issues that are common cause, the issues in dispute as well as the issues that the arbitrator is required to decide in order to resolve the matter.  
Thus process is a facilitated pre-arbitration meeting by the arbitrator.  The parties are ordinarily required to convene pre-arbitration meetings prior to the hearing so as to expedite the matter.  With the implementation of the guidelines to misconduct arbitrations, it is likely that most parties will in fact bypass the pre-arbitration process as set out in rule 20 of the rules for the conduct of proceedings at the CCMA.

Evidence stage

After narrowing the issues, the arbitrator may proceed to hear the evidence of the parties.  The arbitrator is required to advise the parties how the evidence is to be presented and tested.  The arbitrator ought to decide whether or not the proceedings will be inquisitorial or adversarial.  If the proceedings are inquisitorial the arbitrator is responsible for questioning witnesses and requesting the parties to produce documentary evidence.  However, if the form of the proceedings is adversarial, the parties are primarily responsible for calling their witnesses and presenting their evidence.  The inquisitorial option may be appropriate where one party is unrepresented.  An arbitrator is also entitled to conduct the arbitration in a form that combines both the inquisitorial and adversarial styles.

While it is preferable for witnesses who are still to give evidence on behalf of one of the parties not to be in the hearing room, an arbitrator is required to advise the party whose witness is present in the room during the hearing that less weight may be attached to the evidence if the witness was present during the proceedings.  

Argument stage

After the evidence of the parties has been heard, the parties are given an opportunity to argue their versions by addressing the arbitrator on what facts they rely on in support of their case, which facts should be believed or why those facts should be accepted as the more probable version, what relief is sought or opposed, and what legal principles or authority is being relied on.  In more complex cases the arbitrator may allow the parties to file written arguments within seven days after the hearing.  

Award stage

The arbitrator is required to issue a written award with brief reasons within fourteen days after the finalisation of the arbitration proceedings.  The arbitrator is required to arrange the arbitration award along the following lines:

  1. the facts concerning the referral of the dispute;
  2. any preliminary ruling and the reasons for the ruling;
  3. the nature of the dispute;
  4. the background facts;
  5. a summary of the evidence;
  6. an analysis of the evidence;
  7. a conclusion on the fairness of the dismissal based on the above analysis;
  8. an analysis and determination of the remedy; and
  9. the order.  

It is under the heading of analysis of evidence that the arbitrator is required to determine the relevant facts for the purposes of coming to a decision regarding the procedural and substantive fairness of the dismissal.  It also involves an assessment of credibility and the probabilities and an assessment of the applicable rules in the light of those findings.  

Procedural fairness

Arbitrators are required to have regard to item 4 of schedule 8 of the Code of Good Practice: Dismissal (the Code) of the Labour Relations Act, 1995 when deciding whether a dismissal was procedurally fair.  Additionally, the arbitrator is required to have regard to the workplace disciplinary procedure, if one exists.  

Item 4 of the Code contemplates an investigation that is flexible and informal.  Thus, the fairness of an enquiry ought to be tested against the requirements listed in item 4, including whether the employer notified the employee of the allegations of misconduct using a form and language the employee can reasonably understand, whether the employee was allowed a reasonable time to prepare a response to the allegations, whether the employee was allowed the assistance of a trade union representative or fellow employee in preparing a response and in stating a case, whether an employee was given an opportunity to state a case in response to the allegations, and whether the decision was communicated to the employee in writing, together with reasons for such decision.  

The only circumstances in which employers are entitled to dispense with these procedures, are in crisis cases where the employer acts to protect lives and property.  

If there is a workplace disciplinary procedure, its legal status will affect the arbitrator’s approach when assessing the procedural fairness of a dismissal.  Thus, in circumstances where there is a collective agreement, the Code is not a substitute for the collective agreement and the procedural fairness of the employee’s dismissal must be tested against the collective agreement and not the Code.  Only where the collective agreement is silent on a specific issue required by the Code, will the Code play a roll.  

Contractually binding procedures do not have the status of a collective agreement and ought to be tested against the Code.  Any conflict should be decided in favour of the Code unless the employer is able to justify a departure.  Similarly, when it comes to employer imposed procedures, these procedures ought to be tested against the Code and if there is any conflict, the Code takes precedence unless the employer is able to justify the departure.  

Substantive fairness

Item 7 of the Code provides guidelines to Arbitrators for determining whether or not an employee has been dismissed for a fair reason. The arbitrator is required to determine the following: whether or not the employee contravened a rule or standard regulating conduct in the workplace, whether the employee was aware or could reasonably have been aware of the rule or standard, whether the rule or standard has been consistently applied by the employer and whether dismissal was an appropriate sanction for the contravention of the rule or standard.


If a dismissal is found to be substantively unfair, the arbitrator ought to consider whether or not to order the employer to reinstate, re-employ or compensate the employee.  When considering whether or not an employer should reinstate or re-employ the employee, the arbitrator should consider whether or not the employee wishes to be reinstated or re-employed, whether a continued employment relationship would be intolerable and whether it would be reasonably practicable for the employer to reinstate or re-employ the employee.  

When an arbitrator awards compensation, arbitrators must ensure that they have sufficient evidence to determine the amount of compensation.  If the parties do not present that necessary evidence, the arbitrator must request the parties to provide additional evidence by way of oral or documentary evidence.  Compensation for an unfairly dismissed employee must be determined with regard to the extent of the employee’s financial loss or the nature of the unfair dismissal.  

An arbitrator is required to take the following into account when determining compensation for a substantively unfair dismissal: the employee’s remuneration and benefits at the time of the dismissal, the time that has lapsed since the dismissal, whether the employee has secured alternative employment, what steps the employee has taken to attempt to mitigate his/her losses, the financial loss suffered by the employee, the employee’s prospects of future employment, whether the employee failed to use the opportunity to state a case at the disciplinary investigation or enquiry, whether the resolution of the dispute was unreasonably delayed, whether the dismissal was both substantively and procedurally unfair, the extent of unfairness of the dismissal, payments received by the employee from the employer, whether the employee unreasonably refused an offer of reinstatement, whether the employee unreasonably refused other attempts by the employer to make substantial redress for the unfair dismissal, whether the conduct leading to the employee’s dismissal caused the employer financial loss and the employer’s financial position.

Similarly, an arbitrator who finds that a dismissal is procedurally unfair is required to determine whether an award of compensation is appropriate in light of the severity of the procedural unfairness.  Compensation in circumstances of procedurally unfair dismissals is deemed to be a solatium (restitution) and is punitive of the employer to the extent that the employer breached the right to procedural fairness.  When an arbitrator determines the appropriate amount of compensation, the arbitrator must take into account the extent or severity of the procedural irregularity together with the anxiety or hurt experienced by the employee as a result of the unfairness.   An arbitrator who finds that a dismissal is procedurally unfair is entitled to charge the employer an arbitration fee, irrespective of the finding on substantive fairness.  An arbitrator is also entitled to award costs if a party or a representative has acted in a frivolous or vexatious manner in processing a dispute or in the conduct of the arbitration proceedings.  

Amelia Hart
Associate, Employment and labour

Aligning employment equity goals with the new BBBEE targets

All designated employers will be required by the Employment Equity Act (EEA) to submit employment equity reports this year, by no later than 1 October 2012.

A designated employer is:

  1. An employer who employs 50 or more employees; or
  2. An employer who employs fewer than 50 employees, but has a total annual turnover above the annual turnover thresholds prescribed in terms of the EEA.  The prescribed annual turnover thresholds vary depending on sector or standard industrial classifications, ranging from R2million to R5million.

The EEA requires all designated employers to prepare and implement employment equity plans.  One of the key prescribed components of an employment equity plan is numerical goals.  A designated employer must establish and consult about numerical goals that are to apply for the period of its plan.  Numerical goals must strive to achieve an equitable representation of suitably qualified people from designated groups within each occupational category and level in the workforce.  

Under the EEA, the benchmark to establish numerical goals is the demographics of the economically active population.  Other factors such as the attrition percentages of the workforce and projections of growth or rationalisation of the workforce may be applied to establish realistic and achievable goals.  In other words, the demographics benchmark is not cast in stone as the “target” that must be achieved under the provisions of the EEA.

The measurement criteria of the employment equity element (“the code”) under Broad Based Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) is different.  The targets applicable under the code are specified.  A minimum percentage applies to qualify for scoring under this component.  

Employment equity numerical goals may be aligned with BBBEE target goals to strategically manage the achievement of BBBEE.  This strategy does not affect the employer’s statutory compliance under the provisions of the EEA, if relevant and justifiable factors are applied in establishing employment equity numerical goals.  Compliance can be achieved by establishing employment equity numerical goals based on at least the minimum qualifying targets under the code.

The employment equity element of the generic BBBEE scorecard accounts for 15 points, whilst for qualifying small enterprises, 25 points.  Approximately 15% of a company’s score may be achieved by meeting the targets established under the code.

On 7 February 2012 the Minister of Trade and Industry published notice of the new BBBEE targets effective from 9 February 2012.  These were the six to ten year compliance targets established on 9 February 2007.  The new compliance targets for black employee representation in the workforce are as follows:

  1. Black disabled employees: 3%
  2. Black employees in senior management: 60%
  3. Black employees in middle management: 75%
  4. Black employees in junior management: 80%

The formula utilised to calculate a qualifying company’s score is applied based on a 50% recognition for black female appointments.

A minimum of 40% of each of the targets set out above must be achieved for a measured equity to qualify for any points under this element of the scorecard.  The minimum targets are:

  1. Black disabled employees: 1.2%
  2. Black employees in senior management: 24%
  3. Black employees in middle management: 30%
  4. Black employees in junior management: 32%

Numerical goals established for the purpose of meeting the objectives of the EEA should be greater than the minimum qualifying targets for each of the criteria to be measured, with 50% of goals established for black females.  In this way it is possible to achieve statutory compliance under the provisions of EEA and at the same time, using the same vehicle to achieve the strategic BBBEE objectives of the business.


Michelle Naidoo
Director, Employment and labour

Personal income tax rates

The Minister of Finance, in the 2012 Budget Speech, announced that as of 1 March 2012 the personal income tax rate and bracket will be adjusted in accordance with the table below.

 2011/12 2012/13

Taxable income (R)

Rates of tax

Taxable income (R)

Rates of tax

R0 – R150 000

18% of each R1

R0 – R160 000

18% of each R1

R150 001 – R235 000

R27 000 + 25% of the amount above R150 000

R160 001 – R250 000

R28 800 + 25% of the amount above R160 000

R235 001 – R325 000

R48 250 + 30% of the amount above R235 000

R250 001 – R346 000

R51 300 + 30% of the amount above R250 000

R325 001 – R455 000

R75 250 + 35% of the amount above R325 000

R346 001 – R484 000

R80 100 + 35% of the amount above R346 000

R455 001 – R580 000

R120 750 + 38% of the amount above R455 000

R484 001 – R617 000

R128 400 + 38% of the amount above R484 000

R580 001

R168 250 + 40% of the amount above R580 000

R617 001

R178 940 + 40% of the amount above R617 000


Rebates :


Rebates :



R10 755


R11 440


R6 012


R6 390


R2 000


R2 130


Tax threshold :


Tax threshold :


Below age 65

R59 750

Below age 65

R63 556

Age 65 and over

R93 150

Age 65 and over

R99 056

Age 75 and over

R104 261

Age 75 and over

R110 889

Should you require any further information, you are welcome to contact our tax team.

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